In Depth California's Drought

Published on September 1st, 2015 | by Daniel Castro

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Can Data Impact the Drought?

Smart infrastructure can help policymakers make the most use of limited water resources.

This article originally appeared in Government Technology.

Policymakers are pushing residents and businesses to cut back on their water use in response to the severe drought gripping many parts of the Western United States. California Governor Jerry Brown has even gone so far as to declare a state of emergency and impose restrictions intended to reduce water usage by 25 percent across the state. While there is no silver bullet that will solve the water crisis, policymakers have many opportunities to use the data from connected devices to improve conservation. In particular, states should accelerate the deployment of smart meters by water utilities to better manage water use and make their communities more sustainable.

This would be a major improvement, considering how many homes and businesses have no metering at all and simply pay a flat rate for water. There were approximately a quarter-million last year in California alone, and these unmetered customers used almost 40 percent more water per capita than the state average. The problem is severe enough that California passed a law requiring utilities to install meters for all of their customers by 2025. But then there is also the problem of legacy analog meters that many homes and business already have. They have to be read manually every few months, which is both expensive and prone to human error.

That is why utilities are now starting to replace them with smart meters. To save on labor costs and improve on accuracy, utilities have begun installing meters with automatic meter reading (AMR) technology that transmits water usage data to the utility electronically. Utility workers collect usage data from these meters by driving around in vehicles equipped with specialized wireless receivers. In addition, some utilities have moved beyond AMR solutions and have begun to deploy smart meters that not only allow utilities to collect detailed usage data—often in real-time over a fixed network—but that also are capable of receiving information. For example, a utility can remotely shut off service to a customer that is moving. These smart meters further cut down on in-person service visits by utility workers and save the utility money—savings which can then be passed on to consumers in the form of lower rates and fees.

The benefits of smart meters extend beyond enhanced productivity. By providing consumers and utilities real-time data about water usage, smart meters can help customers use water more efficiently. Using real-time data a utility can detect problems in its water distribution system or alert homeowners of potential leaks. For example, startups like the company WaterSmart Software work with utilities to analyze smart meter data and communicate to their customers personalized recommendations about how they can improve water-use efficiency and save money. The potential payoff from automatic leak detection is substantial. Across the nation, household leaks waste over 1 trillion gallons of water annually. For homeowners, receiving real-time alerts can allow them to fix leaks sooner rather than months later after receiving a high water bill or discovering water damage. Every year, water damage from leaks cost homeowners and insurers billions of dollars in property losses.

The United States is still in the early stage of deploying smart water meters. Nationwide, less than 20 percent of the 100 million metered water customers have smart meters. However, where smart meters have gained a foothold, communities have seen substantial savings. For example, after Mumbai launched an ambitious smart metering program, it was able to cut in half the 150 million gallons of water lost per day from leaks. Smart meters can also help spot business or homeowners who ignore mandatory water restrictions. For example, the water utility in Long Beach, California has used smart meter data to enforce water restrictions on customers who previously ignored complaints about their waste. Longer-term better data from smart meters can help policymakers make the most use of limited resources, such as by prioritizing water efficiency grants for the most effective updates to businesses and homes, or deploying new pricing models that reward efficiency.

Deploying smart infrastructure requires capital investments, technically savvy public administrators, and visionary regulators—all of which are too often in short supply. Yet the broader water problems are not going away, and so communities who successfully navigate these obstacles will be best positioned to meet new water challenges in the years ahead.

Image: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

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About the Author

Daniel Castro is the director of the Center for Data Innovation and vice president of the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation. Mr. Castro writes and speaks on a variety of issues related to information technology and internet policy, including data, privacy, security, intellectual property, internet governance, e-government, and accessibility for people with disabilities. His work has been quoted and cited in numerous media outlets, including The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, NPR, USA Today, Bloomberg News, and Businessweek. In 2013, Mr. Castro was named to FedScoop’s list of “Top 25 most influential people under 40 in government and tech.” In 2015, U.S. Secretary of Commerce Penny Pritzker appointed Mr. Castro to the Commerce Data Advisory Council. Mr. Castro previously worked as an IT analyst at the Government Accountability Office (GAO) where he audited IT security and management controls at various government agencies. He contributed to GAO reports on the state of information security at a variety of federal agencies, including the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). In addition, Mr. Castro was a Visiting Scientist at the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania where he developed virtual training simulations to provide clients with hands-on training of the latest information security tools. He has a B.S. in Foreign Service from Georgetown University and an M.S. in Information Security Technology and Management from Carnegie Mellon University.



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